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What is the difference between a cash account and a margin account?

Cash accounts are used by customers who pay in full for the cost of the securities purchased. Margin accounts are used by customers who are authorized to borrow part of an investment's total purchase cost from their brokerage firm. This loan from the brokerage firm to the customer is secured by the value of the securities in the customer's account. Customers generally use margin to expand their purchasing power. However, customers who use margin also run the risk that if the value of the securities that secure the margin loan declines beyond a certain level, additional money or securities must be deposited to the account in order to make up the value. A brokerage firm may sell part or all of any securities held in the account, without prior notice to the customer, in order to make up the value and meet the margin limit requirements. These "margin calls" may occur suddenly and investors should take care to understand the financial impact that trading on margin can have on the value of their accounts.

What kinds of securities can I buy online?

You can buy almost any type of stock, bond, or mutual fund online.

What's the difference between a market order and limit order? Is one better than the other?

With a market order the customer instructs his or her brokerage firm to buy or sell a stock at whatever the price is when the trade is executed, presumably as soon as possible. If the price of the stock is moving quickly and there is a delay in the transmission of the order, then the price at which the customer purchases or sells the stock may be very different than what the customer expected when the order was placed. With a limit order, the customer specifies the price at which he or she is willing to buy or sell. Limit orders can help protect customers from rapid price changes when markets are moving fast. However, there is the risk that the limit order will not be executed. Also note that limit orders usually cost a bit more than market orders.

How do I know my brokerage firm received my order?

High Internet traffic, market volume, and other systems issues may affect your ability to access your account or transmit your orders and may delay receipt of your order by the brokerage firm. Check with your particular brokerage firm on its notification procedures. And note that notification that the order was received does not mean that the order was executed.

Is my order executed immediately?

Orders entered electronically are usually executed quickly; however, there is no assurance that this will always occur. Investors should be aware that high trading volumes can cause delays in executions. Market volatility and delays in executions due to trading volume can result in trade executions at prices significantly different from the quoted price of the security at the time the order was entered. Also, different firms offer different levels of access and system sophistication. The speed of the Internet Service Provider used by an investor may also have an effect on order transmittal and execution. Timing in execution of orders may also be impacted by market volume, order queues at market centers, possible delays in order transmissions by brokers, and other systems issues.

What do the online brokerage rankings mean? If I open an account at a brokerage firm ranked #1, do I have a better chance of making money?

Generally, these rankings indicate the level of customer service or satisfaction with the online brokerage. There are many groups that provide 'ranking' services, and investors should keep in mind that these are not regulated entities. Further, different ranking groups use varying criteria and update their data on different schedules. You do not have a better chance of making money at a firm ranked #1 because the rankings do not relate to the likelihood of investment success.

What are the risks of online trading?

There is risk of loss associated with investing in securities regardless of the method used. New investors need to understand the principles of investing, their own risk tolerance, and their investment goals before venturing into the market. In addition, online investors may want to consider these other risks. High Internet traffic may affect online investors' ability to access their account or transmit their orders. Online investors should be skeptical of stock advice and tips provided in chat rooms or bulletin boards. Investors should do their own research before acting on these tips. Also, for some online investors, there is a temptation to "overtrade" by trading too frequently or impulsively without considering their investment goals or risk tolerance. Overtrading can effect investment performance, raise trading costs, and complicate your tax situation.


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